A geographic information system (GIS) is a system for capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and associated attributes which are spatially referenced to the earth. In the strictest sense, it is a computer system capable of integrating, storing, editing, analyzing, sharing, and displaying geographically-referenced information. In a more generic sense, GIS is a tool that allows users to create interactive queries (user created searches), analyze the spatial information, edit data, maps, and present the results of all these operations. Geographic information science is the science underlying the geographic concepts, applications and systems, taught in degree and GIS Certificate programs at many universities.
Geographic Information System 2007, (online), Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information_system (16 August 2007)
Geographic information system technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, asset management, Environmental Impact Assessment, Urban planning, cartography, criminology, history, sales, marketing, and logistics. For example, GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times in the event of a natural disaster, GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection from pollution, or GIS can be used by a company to site a new business to take advantage of a previously underserved market.
Mufidah, N. M. I. 2006, ‘Pengantar GIS’, Sistem Informasi Geografi (online), Available: http://IlmuKomputer.com/Sistem Informasi Geografi/Pengantar GIS (16 August 2007)
GIS be made the first in the year 1960 to aim finished geographic problems. After 40 year, GIS expand do not only aim to finish problems of just geography but also to various area. Example usage GIS at now: Healthy analysis, criminal analysis, navigation and vehicle routing, business analysis (stock system and distribution), urban (Plano logy) and regional planning, spatial data exploration, utility inventory and management, military simulation.
Husein, R. 2006, ‘Konsep Dasar Sistem Informasi Geografi’, Sistem Informasi Geografi (online), Available: http://IlmuKomputer.com/Sistem Informasi Geografi/Sistem Informasi Geografi (16 August 2007)
The power of a GIS comes from the ability to relate different information in a spatial context and to reach a conclusion about this relationship. Most of the information we have about our world contains a location reference, placing that information at some point on the globe. When rainfall information is collected, it is important to know where the rainfall is located. This is done by using a location reference system, such as longitude and latitude, and perhaps elevation. Comparing the rainfall information with other information, such as the location of marshes across the landscape, may show that certain marshes receive little rainfall. This fact may indicate that these marshes are likely to dry up, and this inference can help us make the most appropriate decisions about how humans should interact with the marsh. A GIS, therefore, can reveal important new information that leads to better decision making.
Geographic Information System 2007, (online), Available: http:// erg.usgs.gov /isb/pubs/gis_poster/index.html(16 August 2007)
Many computer databases that can be directly entered into a GIS are being produced by Federal, State, tribal, and local governments, private companies, academia, and nonprofit organizations. Different kinds of data in map form can be entered into a GIS. A GIS can also convert existing digital information, which may not yet be in map form, into forms it can recognize and use. For example, digital satellite images can be analyzed to produce a map of digital information about land use and land cover. Likewise, census or hydrologic tabular data can be converted to a map like form and serve as layers of thematic information in a GIS.
Geographic Information System 2007, (online), Available: http:// erg.usgs.gov /isb/pubs/gis_poster/index.html (16 August 2007)
A GIS can be viewed in three ways:
The Database View: A GIS is a unique kind of database of the world a geographic database (geodatabase). It is an “Information System for Geography”. Fundamentally, a GIS is based on a structured database that describes the world in geographic terms.
The Map View: A GIS is a set of intelligent maps and other views that show features and feature relationships on the earth’s surface. Maps of the underlying geographic information can be constructed and used as “windows into the database” to support queries, analysis, and editing of the information. This is called geovisualization.
The Model View: A GIS is a set of information transformation tools that derive new geographic datasets from existing datasets. These geoprocessing functions take information from existing datasets, apply analytic functions, and write results into new derived datasets.
Geographic Information System 2007, (online), Available : ESRI.com/Three view of a GIS (16 August 2007)
By using GIS, we will be more easy to in getting, process, manipulation, analysis, modeling and presenting spatial data to finish planning, process and check problems.
By using of GIS we will get excess, Example:
Geospatial data handling become better in standard format.
Revise and data development
Geospatial data and information become searched easier, to be analyses and presented.
Making product having added value.
Ability converts geospatial data.
Thrift of expense and time.
Taken decision become better.
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